Substitutions

1 envelope yeast = 2-1/4 teaspoons
1 envelope yeast = 1 cube fresh yeast
1 tablespoon corn starch = 2 tablespoons flour (for thickening)
1 cup cake flour = 2 tablespoons corn starch + 7/8 cup all-purpose flour
1 cup self rising flour = 1 cup all-purpose flour + 1 teaspoon
baking powder + 1/2 teaspoon salt + 1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon baking powder = 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar + 1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1 cup buttermilk or sour milk = 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar + milk to make 1 cup
1 teaspoon freshly grated lemon or orange peel = 1 teaspoon dried lemon or orange peel
1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley, cilantro or other fresh herbs = 1 teaspoon dried herbs
1 ounce baking chocolate = 3 tablespoons cocoa + 1 table spoon oil or melted shortening
Canola oil = vegetable oil = corn oil
1 package (12 ounces) chocolate chips = 2 cups